Pamukkale Turkey Tourism, Vacation to Pamukkale, Pamukkale Best Destinations
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Pamukkale, meaning “cotton castle” in Turkish, is a natural site in Denizli Province in southwestern Turkey.
The city contains hot springs and travertines, terraces of carbonate minerals left by the flowing water. It is located in Turkey’s Inner Aegean region, in the River Menderes valley, which has a temperate climate for most of the year.
Travertine terrace formations at Pamukkale.
The ancient Greco-Roman and Byzantine city of Hierapolis was built on top of the white “castle” which is in total about 2,700 metres (8,860 ft) long, 600 m (1,970 ft) wide and 160 m (525 ft) high. It can be seen from the hills on the opposite side of the valley in the town of Denizli, 20 km away.
Tourism is and has been a major industry. People have bathed in its pools for thousands of years. As recently as the mid-20th century, hotels were built over the ruins of Hieropolis, causing considerable damage.
An approach road was built from the valley over the terraces, and motor bikes were allowed to go up and down the slopes. When the area was declared a World Heritage Site, the hotels were demolished and the road removed and replaced with artificial pools. Wearing shoes in the water is prohibited to protect the deposits.
The former Roman Bath of the ancient city of Hierapolis has been used as the site of the Hierapolis Archaeology Museum since 1984.
In this museum, alongside historical artifacts from Hierapolis, there are also artifacts from Laodiceia, Colossae, Tripolis, Attuda and other towns of the Lycos valley. In addition to these, the museum has a large section devoted to artifacts found at Beycesultan Hüyük that includes some of the most beautiful examples of Bronze Age craft.
Artifacts from the Caria, Pisidia and Lydia regions are also on display in this museum. The museum’s exhibition space consists of three closed areas of the Hierapolis Bath and the open areas in the eastern side which are known to have been used as the library and gymnasium. The artifacts in open exhibition space are mostly marble and stone.
Pamukkale is a tourist attraction. It is recognized as a World Heritage Site together with Hierapolis. Hierapolis-Pamukkale was made a World Heritage Site in 1988.
The underground volcanic activity which causes the hot springs also forced carbon dioxide into a cave, which was called the Plutonium meaning place of the god, Pluto. This cave was used for religious purposes by priests of Cybele, who found ways to appear immune to the suffocating gas.
Tadpoles can be found in the pools.
The term travertine comes from Roman times, in reference to the great travertine sediments of Tivoli in Italy. The travertines are stone kind which result from complicated chemical reactions that have many causes, many facets and they are largely dependent upon the surroundings. The geological phenomena which compose Pamukkale Thermal Springs, affect a wide area.
In this area, there are 17 hot water springs in which the temperature change between 35 and 100 degrees. The thermal springs of Pamukkale form an integral part of the regions which are potential for tourism and have been popular since ancient times. The water, that emerges from the spring, is transported 320 m to the head of the travertines and deposits itself on a section 60 to 70 meters long covering an expanse of 240 to 300 meters. In little pools side and larger basins, the calcium carbonate which is deposited at first is a soft jelly but with time it hardens and becomes a travertine.
With the reason the thermal water’s effort to deposit on the normal way, travertine emerges. When the calcium carbonade reaches to an excessive amount and the water comes to the land, the carbondioxide transpirers and the calcium carbonate deposits. The depositing goes on while the carbon dioxide in the water and the carbon dioxide in the weather balances.
This reaction is affected by the weather conditions, ambient temperature and the speed of flow duration. Precipitation continues until the carbon dioxide in the thermal water reaches equilibrium with the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Measurements made at the source of the springs find atmospheric levels of 725 mg/l carbon dioxide, by the time this water flows across the travertines, this figure falls to 145 mg/l. Likewise calcium carbonate falls from 1200 mg/l to 400 mg/l and calcium 576.8 mg/l to 376.6 mg/l. From these results it is calculated that 499.9 mg of CaCO3 is deposited on the travertine for every liter of water.
This means that for a flow rate of 1 ı/s of water 43191 grams are deposited daily. The average density of a travertine is 1.48 g/cm3 implying a deposit of 29.2 dm3. Given that the average flow of the water is 465.2 l/s this implies that it can whiten 13584 m2 a day, but in practice this areal coverage is difficult to attain. These theoretical calculations indicate that up to. 4.9 km2 it can be covered with a white deposit of 1 mm thickness.
The Roman Bath, one of the biggest buildings of Hierapolis antique city, has been used as Hierapolis Archaeology Museum, since 1984.
In this museum, Alongside the historical artifacts which were founded in Hierapolis arches, there are some artifacts from Laodiceia, Colossae, Tripolis, Attuda and other towns of the Lycos (Çürüksu) valley.In addition to these, the museum has a large section devoted to artifacts found at Beycesultan Hüyük that includes some of the most beautiful examples of Bronze age craft.
The artifacts which have come from the arches in the Caria, Pisidia and Lydia regions are also on display in this museum. The museum’s exhibition space consists of three closed areas of the Hierapolis Bath and the open areas in the eastern side which are known to have been used as the library and the gymnasium. The artifacts in open exhibition space are mostly marble and stone artifacts.
Tombs and Statues Gallery: This room contains foundings from the excavations in Hierepolis and Laodiceia, including sarcophagi, statues, grave stones, pedestals, pillars and inscriptions. Among these artifacts there are statues of Tyche, Dionysos, Pan.Asklepios, Isis, Demeter and Trion which although executed by the Romans, were inspired by the Grek and Hellenistic traditions. The representations of local customs on family tombs are particularly interesting .
The most beautiful examples of baked earth sarcophagi are specific to this area. One of the most valuable works of art in this room is the sarcophagus belonging to a certain Arhom, of the ‘Sidemare’ type. Once it is an inscription to Maximilion, and it is the finest work to emerge from the ancient towns of Lahdi and Laodicia.
Small Artifacts Gallery: In this room, there are small foundings from several civilizations of the last 4,000 years. These works, which are displayed in chronological order include works from many archaeological sites in and around Denizli.
A special importance is given to the foundings from Beycesultan Höyük. These foundings are quite the most beautiful examples of an ancient civilization. These works, which were found in the excavation conducted by the British Institute of Archaeology include idols, baked earth bowls, libatian cups, seals and other stone artifacts. In other parts of the room are displayed objects from the Frigan, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine period such as glass cups, necklaces, gemstones (in the from of rings, bracalets, earrinngs and so on) and earthenware lamps.
This room also contains an impotant sequence of ancient coins arranged in chronological order. The earliest of these coins were minted in the sixth century AD and the display proceeds through the Helenistik, Roman, Byzantine, Selçuk and Otoman periods with coins of gold, silver and bronze.
Theater’s Ruins Gallery: In this room, decorative works from the theather of Hierapolis, most of which have been restored, are displayed. Some of the reliefs of the scenery building remain in site but parts of them have been replaced by copies. In the works that are found in the room there are reliefs devoted to the myth of Apollo and Artemis, the delights of Dionysos and the coronotion of the Roman Emperor Septimus Severus.
There are depictions of the abduction of Persephone by Hades, Apollo, Leto, Artemis, and Hades and sculpted sphinxes. Sculpted relief reminiscent of of Attalos and Eumenes are on display. Inscriptions describing the coronation of the goddess Hierapolis and dicisions of the assemble concerning the assemble concerning the theater may be seen.